The Translation of the names and places in Chinese in this website follows the "Manual of Styles"
published by The New York Times, 1999 summary as follows.|
|China. Standing alone, it means the mainland nation. Use the formal name,|
the people's Republic of China, in texts and direct quotations only.
Also see Communist China and Taiwan. |
|Chinese(n., sing. and pl.; also adj.). The people are always Chinese; never use the|
|disparaging Chinamen or Chinaman, except in an inescapable direct quotation.|
|Chinese names. A personal name ordinarily consists of the family name|
| followed by a
given name(Zhu Rongji, for example; in later reference, Mr. Zhu or Prime Minister Zhu).|
English spellings of mainland Chinese words and names are governed by the official system known as Pinyin (the term means "transcription"). Many of the Roman letters approximate their accustomed English sounds. The exceptions most jarring to non-Chinese-speaking readers are q (which sounds like ch, as in cheek) and x (which sounds like sy, so that the province name Xinjiang is pronounced syin-jyang). When either letter occurs in a name newly prominent in the news, supply the pronunciation. (See PRONUNCIATION KEYS.)
Women do not ordinarily take their husbands' names. The usual title with a woman's surname is Ms., unless she has a professional, military or specialized title.
When an English "conventional form" is recognized for a Chinese place name, use it: Hong Kong, Inner Mongolia, Tibet and Yangtze River, for example. (See GEOGRAPHIC NAMES.)
For names in Hong Kong and in areas outside Beijing's influence (notable in Taiwan), non-Pinyin preferences should be followed. A usual style is based on the order system known as Wade-Giles(with its apostrophes omitted): Tung Chee-hwa; Chiang Pin-kung.
Some Chinese, most often in Hong Kong, in Taiwan or overseas, westernize their names: Martin Lee; Elsie Leung.
Names of historic figures keep traditional spellings; Confucius; Sun Yat-sen (but this group does not include Mao Zedong or Zhou Enlai). Also use familiar spellings for menu items like General Tso's chicken. And when reporting on an art exhibition, follow the style used in the catalog. Also see DYNASTIES.
|Taipei (the capital of Taiwan).|
|Taiwan should be used in datelines after city and town names; the island's|
|capital is Taipei. Either name can serve, in headlines and articles, as a synonym for what remains officially Nationalist China. Because the governments in Beijing and Taipei both claim to speak for all of China, phrasing (execpt in quotations) should remain neutral on the island's status. While many of Taiwan's people are Chinese (émigrés from the mainland, or descendants of émigrés), the people native to the island are Taiwanese.|
|GEOGRAPHIC NAMES. The first authority for the spelling of foreign place names not|
listed here is the latest edition of Webster's New World College Dictionary. For Names that do not appear here or in
the dictionary, consult the current edition of the National Geographic Altas of the Worls.
For names found in none of those three places, consult the Geonet Names Server maintained by the
National Imagery and Mapping Agency on the World Wide Web:|
When alternative spelling exisit for foreign place names, use what geographers call the "conventional form" for English. Thus, for example, use Munich, not München, and Moscow, not Moskva. Retain accent marks in French, Italian, Spanish, Portuguese and German names only. If an umlaut (ő) is omitted as a result of this rule, do not follow the practice of some languages in adding an e after the affected vowel. Abbreviate Saint and Sainte as St. and Ste. when thsy occur in place names, domestic or foreign. But spell out Fort and Mount as part of a name. The abbreviations Ft. and Mt. may be used in headlines, charts, tables or maps.